Surviving Covid-19 in Addis Ababa: income, technology, religion

By Abel Merawi

“People worry how many people may die of COVID-19, I worry about how many people could starve to death if this situation continues,” Mr. Tasewu Alebachewu explains.

Mr. Tasewu Alebachewu

As a teacher Mr. Tasewu understands the need for strict measures, but the father of two is fearful for his single-income family. “I don’t know if my family could survive the financial consequence,” he ponders. Fear for inflation led Mr. Tasewu to commit ‘panic shopping’, using the money he saved for emergency.

Ethiopians vividly remember March 13 as it marked the first domestic case of COVID-19 and introduced a strict 5-month state of emergency encompassing every aspect of social, religious and economic life.

In the capital city of Ethiopia and the African Union, life has become a juggling act balancing health and finance.

Before COVID-19, Mr. Tasewu tutored four children to double his 7.000 Birr (€ 175,-) monthly salary – “It used to cover all the necessary expenses for my family” – but since schools have been ordered to close and teacher-student contact prohibited Mr. Alebachewu is unable to tutor, and now depends solely on his teacher salary.

Mr. Tasewu desperately seeks additional income and is doubtful of the future: “I am at the mercy of God now. I have used up my savings, I don’t even know what I will do if someone in my family falls ill.”

Though understanding the benefits of PPE, he argues: “I am minimizing our consumptions to the basics – food and food only.”

“Buying sanitizers and masks is unrealistic, I don’t even know how we can continue eating once a day in the near future,” he adds.

To minimize the risk of infection, Mr. Tasewu’s children are not allowed outside, they all stay together in the two-bedroom apartment provided by the government.

“The only good things about being unable to work is that I am getting to know my children better, giving more time to my wife, which had strengthened our marriage.”

Providing a helping hand with the laundry and cleaning, he exclaims “I didn’t know my wife had all these things to do at home!”

Sadly Mr. Tasewu dreads to speak of the future, considering the worst possibilities he asks: “what if the government was unable to continue paying my salary? What if I still had to pay my rent?”

As great nations struggle to effectively handle this novel virus, it is hard to imagine the damage on developing countries like Ethiopia. The state of emergency includes banning any gathering of more than four people with 2 meters’ distance between each. Handshaking is also banned, while wearing masks or scarfs at public places is mandatory.

Until now the number of people with coronavirus has been low – as of May 27, Ethiopia has 731 coronavirus cases with 6 dead and 181 recovered – and people are disregarding the social restrictions.

The Ministry of Health claims that the impact can be observed at the end of June, when the rainy season begins, and this is not the time to relax.

Already 2,800 individuals in the capital city have been imprisoned for failure to comply with the restriction to gather, which is punishable with up to three-year imprisonment or with a fine between 1,000 birr (€ 27) and 200,000 birr (€ 5,400).

For establishments with ample space, the gathering restriction will not stand as a barrier. But for Aklilu Wolday‘s small liquor shop, even 3 customers constitute a crowd.

Aklilu Wolday

Aklilu decided to close down his liquor store on March 23, he says, “Currently, I only provide takeaway services, which means a loss of over than 75% of my income.”

“Most customers have stopped purchasing liquor since it is ‘non-essential, but some regular customers tried to persuade me to allow them to drink inside my shop, even offering extra money,” Aklilu tells, “they think the virus doesn’t affect blacks. I feared the consequences of this misconception and so I closed down my shop,” he adds.

\After graduating in Management Information System, Aklilu became a teacher and IT expert. But eventually he put his dreams aside to take over the small family business. In Ethiopia, family takes precedence over personal dreams. Aklilu’s savings, intended to start a fine art printing business in the future, dwindle by the day, and he had to let go of his part-time employee with advance payment.

In support of small businesses, the government took measures such as tax exemption, and Aklilu says, “Living in a developing country, I don’t expect additional support from the government.”

For the time being Wolday tries to generate more income by designing posters and delivering consumable goods.

To protect employees, terminating employment contracts is temporarily prohibited by law. Since most people live in rentals, landlords are banned from either evicting or increasing rents. But for a waiter who depends on tips, the financial impact is deeply felt.

Bayisa Jira

26-year-old Bayisa Jira earns his living serving in a bar and restaurant. Such places are common in residential areas, providing both indoor and outdoor service for family and friends.

“Apart from always wearing a mask, I thoroughly wash my hand with soap after each and every transaction,” he says.

But despite his careful behavior he remains concerned: “it is still risky as I encounter people from various walks of life.”

Bayisa rents a single room for himself and his younger brother, Girma. He pays rent with one-third of his salary. His 3,000 Birr (90€) salary is not enough to cover all expenses.

He says “Before COVID-19, the tips were enough to cover the rent and my salary was spent on provision. Not anymore.”

His proprietor understands his situation, but Bayisa’s rent constitutes the owner’s only source of income.

Bayisa’s parents live in the Bale Robe, Oromia Region in south-central Ethiopia, he says, “They have trusted me with my baby brother and I hate to fail them.”

Trying to find the silver lining, Bayisa reasons: “Thank God I eat at work; my only worry is my little brother.” By working two shifts, he manages to provide for his brother so far, but he explains:

“I can barely provide food! I can’t afford to regularly buy sanitizers.”

“If things get worse, I will be forced to send by brother back to my parents.” He adds: “My only dream is to see him finish college and live a better life.”

Tough the curriculum is the same across the country, lack of adequate staff, standard school physical environment and learning materials in the countryside create a huge quality difference compared to the city. In the countryside quality of education depends entirely on the teacher, whereas students in Adis Abeba have access to library and the internet services.

The government strives to provide equal education to every student. Amongst Ethiopian students, some depend on government provision even for food while other lead a lavish life with summer vocations to Dubai.

In the middle of the continuum we find Meti Gemechu, a 20-year-old Marketing Management student at Saint Mary’s University in Addis Abeba.

Previously her time was divided between university, her work coordinating a youth leadership program for a local NGO, friends and family. But since the first corona patient was reported on mid-March her busy life has continued.

“I am taking classes online through handouts and submitting assignments to instructors,” Meti explains.

This however is not an option for millions of students across the countryside since the government doesn’t have such online platform.

Thinking of the future impact, Meti finally says, “I am not under the illusion that the world will ever be the same again. Things are going to be different, and all we can do is adapt.”

She presents two possibilities. Assuming the worst, she says “If things continue like this, people will likely lose their job and bring an economic collapse.” But she also considers a brighter future saying, “By utilizing modern technologies, we can improve the way we live, learn and conduct businesses.”

Utilization of technologies is vital for Ethiopia, but it is a long shot for a traditional and religious country. Henok Hailu is an Orthodox Christian deacon, President of Ethiopian Psychologists Association and lecturer at Addis Ababa University, Department of Psychiatry.

Henok Hailu

Henok explains the different reactions of people during pandemics: “Some may experience moderate fear, which makes them conscious and use PPE. Others resolve to denial and rationalization, leading to inappropriate measures like hoarding or inactive reliance on the higher power – God. For a country like ours, in which 98% of the population is spiritual, the latter often happens.”

With this mentality, any social or natural problem like plague is fought in two fronts: the scientific and the religious. As a Licensed Counseling Psychologist, Henok has seen the value of religion.

He says, “It is helpful for people to be ruled by their moral values so as not to take inappropriate measures. They have to hope and trust that the difficulty shall pass.”

However, he disagrees with extreme spirituality without personal will.

He claims, “It might make people reluctant to scientific measures or demonize the disease because they will create the delusion of comfort by attributing everything to a higher power.”

Henok is a member of the COVID-19 Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Advisory Council of the Ministry of Health. From experience he argues, “In order to create balance and avoid the dichotomy between science and religion, involving religious leaders in educating the public is important.”

Currently, the country’s mainstream Medias dedicate an hour of prayer in the evening. The prayers are from the three dominant religions: Orthodox Christian, Islam and Protestant. Henok states, “The prayers and sermons are very helpful, especially when our moral, social and emotional support highly depends on religion. it will play a vital role in keeping people hopeful and in regaining control over their social, spiritual and economic life.”

As a religious person and a psychologist, Henok advises people, “to acknowledge and vent their feelings; rely on relevant scientific information; and seek spiritual support through religion.”

By Abel Merawi

In the end, I feel that the fight against COVID-19 is primarily economic. Tasewu, Aklilu, Bayisa, and Meti are surviving COVID-19 with personal determination. I wish to stress the importance of implementing the measures because the figures are making people negligent. More importantly, finding an alternative solution for the economic impact is necessary. The restrictions seem to be working for now, but the long term economic impact as a nation is yet to be seen.

How Kampala’s residents deal with coronavirus lockdown: tough measures

Joseph Kizza, Kampala

When Uganda’s government extended an initial 14-day nationwide lockdown by three weeks – until May 5 – to curb the spread of the coronavirus, some people were dismayed by the news after enduring a fortnight of unusual restricted existence.

But for others, like Denis Ayebazibwe who lives in the capital Kampala, President Yoweri Museveni’s announcement of the extension was “a good move”.

The 22-year-old runs a small groceries shop with a friend in the densely populated neighbourhood of Zana, about seven kilometres out of the city centre. Their small business is feeling the stress of the lockdown – but not as bad as is the case elsewhere.

“Our only challenge is transport. We have to walk to and from the nearby market – a total distance of four kilometres – every week to buy the groceries to stock our shop. It is very exhausting,” says Ayebazibwe, whose calm demeanor and bashfulness compliments the rosary around his neck.

Nonetheless, he maintains it is necessary that Uganda remains under lockdown.

Denis Ayebazibwe stands by his groceries shop in the neighbourhood of Zzana, about seven kilometres out of Uganda’s capital Kampala.

As of Monday, the coronavirus-positive cases in the east African nation stood at 79, with 47 of these already discharged from hospital after recovering. No coronavirus-related death has been registered in the country of 41 million people.

Inevitably, the lockdown has inspired behavioral changes in many Ugandan homes. On top of having to stay indoors for the mandatory dusk-to-dawn curfew, locals are keener than ever before on regular handwashing, one of the key practices recommended globally to keep the novel coronavirus at bay.

And at Ayebazibwe’s home, it is no different.

“Nowadays, if someone returns home, the first thing they have to do is wash their hands with soap and water. It is a new normal for us. Everyone in my family understands all too well that if we let our guard down, we could all potentially get infected,” he says.

The youthful food seller dropped out of school after his O-Level, but his steely determination to become a wholesale shop owner before he turns 30 is telling of a character of a young man laden with ambition. To realize his dream, Ayebazibwe, the eldest of three children in his family, is saving every penny possible from the returns of his shop.

The shop is also packed with a stockpile of sacks of charcoal for sale, which is the most common source of fuel in his community.

Good enough, the lockdown has not disrupted the flow of customers to their packed shop. “People buy stuff like tomatoes, carrots, eggplants and onions as frequently as they did before the lockdown,” he says.

But while business is fairly good, Ayebazibwe’s social life has taken a hit.

In the age of social distancing due to the coronavirus pandemic, he misses hanging out with his friends, who have been boxed into confinement in a locked down Uganda. “I only chat with them on Facebook and WhatsApp. We all can’t wait for the lockdown to be lifted so we can get back to meeting physically,” he says.

While the government allows essential services, including food sale, health service provision and banks, to continue operating during the lockdown, most businesses remain closed and if the situation does not return to normal soon, many Ugandans face a bleak future.

For Makerere University student Brian Opio consequences of the coronavirus lockdown are dire.

“We are running out of food at home as well as other basics. You cannot turn to anyone for help because you know everyone is going through a rough time. It is a very difficult period.”

His father, who owns a hardware shop in Gulu town in northern Uganda, had to close the business after the government ordered the closure of all non-essential businesses as one of the lockdown measures.

He recently told his son, a second-year student of Business Administration, that he will likely have to take a dead year at the university due to lack of money for tuition. Opio was horrified by that news, but he totally understood.

“My father is seated at home – doing nothing. He has been depending on the hardware shop to support the whole family and to keep us in school,” says Opio.

From the look of things a further extension of the lockdown seems ever more likely. For the last one week, all the COVID-19 positive cases have been truck drivers from neighbouring Tanzania and Kenya, tested at the border points.

There has been mounting pressure from sections of the public for the government to either shut the borders or not allow truck drivers through until their results are known after being tested.

President Yoweri Museveni, who has previously likened the fight against the coronavirus to the bush war that brought him into power more than three decades ago, told the nation in his latest address that cargo transporters would be allowed to carry on with their respective journeys after being tested at the border. If found to be positive for coronavirus, a driver would be tracked down and hospitalized for treatment.

Last weekend, Dr. Diana Atwine, the permanent secretary of Uganda’s health ministry, was hosted on a local radio talk show and admitted that porous borders are posing a huge threat to the COVID-19 control and prevention.

She, however, underlined that Uganda’s borders should remain open to keep business moving, but that managing truck drivers coming in must be handled more efficiently.

“We still have protocols that bind us as the East African Community. We need to put in place processes that minimize infection. This is a mutual obligation, it is prudent that trade continues. What matters is the processes we put at borders to minimize infection,” Dr. Atwine was quoted as saying.

With no community cases reported in the last seven days, Uganda’s chances of fighting coronavirus seem to be on the bright side – if only they can prevent long-distance truck drivers from carrying the virus into the country.

One person who is confident that the war will be won sooner than later is Oliver Nanyombi, a laboratory technician at Family Health Centre in Kampala.

“I think we are doing a very good job – we have quarantined people. In no time, we shall be free of the virus,” she says, the confidence in her tone evident. “Since we have previously managed Ebola outbreaks, we shall also successfully deal with the coronavirus.”

Lab technician Oliver Nanyombi at her duty station at Family Health Centre in Kampala

At the entrance of the facility where Nanyombi works – from 8am until 6pm six days in a week – stands a portable water canister and antiseptic soap for visitors to clean their hands before walking in. Inside, a hand sanitizer is one of the features on the nurse’s desk, which acts as the reception point for patients and clients. The rooms are airy.

“We frequently clean all surfaces,” weighs in Enock Ndebesa, a male nurse at the health facility, which is tucked away in a quiet residential neighbourhood. Here, antenatal, general medicine and minor surgery services are provided. With current restrictions on movement though, the clinic is not as busy as on ordinary days.

But even with less activity at the health facility, hygiene cannot be compromised. The constant presence of a janitor on duty is reassurance that staff here are abiding by the standard operating procedures to keep coronavirus at bay.

While experts do not think it to be the main way the virus spreads, they still believe that a person can get coronavirus by touching a surface or object that has the virus on it and then touching their own mouth, nose or eyes.

This ubiquitous coronavirus is thought to spread mainly from person-to-person.

In fact, Nanyombi insists that surgical gloves should be a preserve for medical professionals. “At the beginning of the pandemic, some people wore gloves thinking they would not get infected. That was wrong. Gloves are deceptive. People should instead stick to washing their hands with soap and water.”

And if this basic habit sticks, Uganda will be a much healthier nation, adds the lab technician.

“After coronavirus, hopefully, people will maintain proper hygiene habits, which will help prevent community-acquired diseases. Cases of such diseases as typhoid will reduce,” she predicts.

Family Health Centre is keen on enforcing standard operating procedures to prevent the spread of the coronavirus

For now, just like many other countries, Uganda is trying to put up a force of resilience against a virus that has claimed the lives of more than 200,000 people across the planet.

Fighting off this deadly virus requires global solidarity, but recent developments have proved to be a thorn in the side of this strategy. The World Health Organisation is at the heart of the global fight against the pandemic, but recently, the US announced it would stop funding the UN’s specialized health agency as it reviews its handling of the pandemic.

UN secretary general António Guterres responded by saying that this is not the time to cut funds to the WHO.

“The international community [should] work together in solidarity to stop this virus,” he said. “It is my belief that the World Health Organization must be supported, as it is absolutely critical to the world’s efforts to win the war against COVID-19.”

The UN chief is right. Uganda is one of the beneficiaries of support from the WHO, which plays a vital role in bolstering health systems in the country and far beyond. President Donald Trump’s cutting off of key funds to the organization means the effects will trickle down to Uganda.

Last week, the UN agencies in Uganda issued a $316.4m emergency appeal to respond to COVID-19 and its impact on the east African country. As the country continues to run around the clock to stave off the virus, its citizens eager to return to normal life.

Every food-selling business in Uganda is required to have a handwashing facility in the current lockdown
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